authorities suggest AAS may have the potential for physical and
psychological dependency (Yesalis, Wright, & Bahrke, 1989).
Yet, Di Pasquale (1992b) states,"Unlike illicit drugs, which
have strong psychogenic effects, anabolic steroids are not psychoactive
compounds and are not physically or psychologically addictive."
Before more effective drugs were available, AAS had been used
in the treatment of depression and other mental disorders. Anabolic-androgenic
steroid use has been associated with self-reported changes in
mood, behavior, and somatic perceptions. In addition, they have
been shown to alter electroencephalogram readings similar to
those seen with amphetamines and tricyclic antidepressants. Case
reports of hypomania, and schizophrenic and psychotic episodes
has been noted during use of AAS. Yet, no objective measures
of hostility have been documented in humans (Bahrke, Barke, &
AAS may increase arousal, increase self-confidence and pain
threshold. This phenomena could lead to the expression of aggression
at inappropriate times in the absence of adequate external forces,
internal discipline or social coping skills (Bahrke et al 1990).
Increased aggression and irritability have been reported by
individuals using AAS, as well as by their family and friends.
Although, it has been argued that the many subjectively perceived
psychological and behavioral changes by AAS users are a result
of expectancy, imitation or role modeling (Bahrke et al 1990).
The ability of a AAS to aromatize may play a factor in its effectiveness
to promote aggression (Bahrke, Yesalis, & Wright, 1990).
Weightlifters who self-administered AAS reported significantly
higher anger-hostility score on the POMS questionnaire (McNair
et al, 1971) immediately after weight training than did weightlifters
who did not use AAS. No differences were apparent immediately
before or 30 minutes after an exercise bout (Bahrke et al 1990).
Wright et al (1986) found that the POMS did not confirm a
difference of mood states between current AAS users and former
AAS users although both groups reported changes in enthusiasm,
aggression, irritability, insomnia, muscle size, and libido when
The effects of AAS on social behavior in the cynomolgus monkey
was studied. Testosterone cypionate and testosterone propionate
was administered in dosages equivalent to 2 mg/kg of body weight
every 2 weeks and 4 mg/kg of body weight every week, respectively,
for 8 weeks. Behavior data suggested that the experimental treatment
caused dominate monkeys to exhibit increases in dominate behavior
and subordinate monkeys manifested increased submission. In addition,
treated monkeys also demonstrated less affiliative behaviors
such as play, grooming activities, and body contact. After an
8-week recovery period, dominate/submissive behaviors returned
to pretest levels, although most affiliative behaviors failed
to rebound in this time except for play which actually exceeded
pretest levels (Rejeski, Gregg, Kaplan, & Manuck 1990).