Former anabolic steroid users have more androgen receptors
than untrained individuals and drug free powerlifters. Powerlifter
had more androgen receptors that the untrained individuals (Kadi
Meaning of Natural
Before the 1960s, "Natural" used to refer to someone
who did not train with weights, but appeared athletic. After
the 1960s, "Natural" it slowly began to take on a different
Sports Publications' Non-disclosure Motivated by Advertisement
Bodybuilding and sports magazine publishers have much to gain
by not opening reporting the widespread use of drugs in the sports
in which they cover. Publishers, in particular, stand to gain
when their readers buy into the idea that they too can be like
the champions that are presented in their publications; if only
they work hard enough, follow these champions' programs outlined
in publishers' articles, and purchase the nutritional supplements,
equipment, etc. as mentioned the articles and shown in the accompaning
advertisements. The ads for these products are typically either
presented with scientific studies taken out of context or an
impressive looking model or champion compensated for their endorsement.
The message is basically, "You too can be like these champions
if you continue to (A) work hard enough and (B) buy XY&Z".
After spending years of hard training, aspiring athletes in certain
sports are often faced with a difficult (or not so difficult)
decision when they realize the hard truth of the widespread use
of sports enhancing drugs in their chosen sport.
All I needed to know was that the top international champions
were taking steroids, something I confirmed by asking the guys
in London. I would not go into a competition with a disadvantage.
"Leave no stone unturned" was my rule. And while mere
wasn't any evidence of danger - research into steroids' side
effects was only getting under way - even if there had been,
I'm not sure I would have cared. Downhill ski champions and Formula
One race drivers know they can get killed, but they compete anyway.
Because if you don't get killed, you win. Besides, I was twenty
years old, and I thought I would never die.
Schwarzenegger A (2012). Total Recall: My Unbelievably True
Life Story. Thorndike Pr, 87.
Honest Dialog about Drugs in Sports
to an aspiring athlete about drugs in sports is quite difficult
and can even be considered taboo. Without this discussion an
athlete is left buying into the idea that they can achieve the
same accomplishments as those highest in the sport who covertly
use drugs. Society and the media propitiate these misconceived
notions that anyone can be a champion with mere hard work and
Presenting only a single-sided anti-drug propaganda message
does not appear to be effective in reducing the use of drugs
and risks the credibility of the presenter and who they represent
in the eyes of the aspiring athlete. This lack of trust alienates
authority, thereby severely reducing
the likelihood the athlete would every reconsider seeking future
counseling or assistance from these people in the future.
Also see Problems with Current
Information on Anabolic Steroids.
Acetaminophen is the leading cause of sudden liver failure.
Over 600 over the counter medications contain Acetaminophen.
Overdoses account for over 50,000 emergency room visits and more
than 450 deaths each year. As little as few weeks of taking 8
pills (4000 mg) a day can cause problems in some people.
Sociology of Drugs
Drugs can pass through several levels of use and social acceptance.
- Benefits and miracles of new drug spread
- Possible harmful effects and cases of abuse are discovered
- Propaganda: demonized through misinformation and half truths
- Drug becomes illicit or controlled by governmental regulations
- Use and/or possession of drug becomes a crime
- Drug is obtained and used covertly
- Drug is manufactured with no governmental regulation
- Counterfeiting and use of potentially more dangerous substances
or manufacturing practices
- Social deviant involvement
- social and political stigma clears
- possible benefits and potential harmful effects are seen
- other applications are found or rediscovered
- Social Acceptance