Ovary / Gonad Hormones

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Estrogens

  • estrone, estriol, beta-estradiol
  • Adult levels stimulate ephiphyseal closure
    • via influences on chondrocyte proliferation and function and on bone formation
  • Facilitate deposition of fat and stimulate muscle growth
  • Most affective in castroated male ruminants
    • improve gain and feed conversion 10-20%
  • Decreases protein degradation
  • SHBG Protein Binding
    • More binding
      • less free estrogen

Daily Human 17-beta Estradiol (E2) & Estrone (E1) Production
Sex, Age Serum Concentration (pg/mL) Total Production (pg)
  E1 E2   E1 E2
Children 12.0 12.5 26,520,000 16,875,000
Males, adult 38.0 37.2 97,660,000 70,308,000
Females, 41 yrs - 400.1 - 540,000,000

Also see Dietary and Environmental Estrogens.

Progesterone

  • Female hormone
  • Prepares uterus for fertilized egg

Testosterone

  • Testosterone is an anabolic/androgenic hormone.
  • Naturally produced in both men and women.
    • Men: Testis and Adrenal Cortex
    • Women: Adrenal Cortex
  • Function
    • Increased body growth
    • Increased deposition of bone salts
    • Adult levels stimulate epiphyseal plate closure
    • Postnatal increases contributes to larger fibers from induction of muscle protein accretion
  • SHBG Protein Binding
    • More binding
      • less free testosterone
  • Bioavailable Testosterone
    • Increased by diets high in fat and protein
    • Decreased in vegan diets (as is IGF-I)
    • Decreased in diets high in carbs
    • Decreased if soy protein is substituted for meat protein
      • Habito RC, Montalto J, Leslie E, Ball MJ (2000). Effects of replacing meat with soyabean in the diet on sex hormone concentrations in healthy adult males. Br J Nutr. 84(4):557-63.
    • Percentage free is 1.6 to 2.9 percent

Free Testosterne Level
Age 20-40 40-50 50-60 70+
ng/ml 400-1080 350-890 250-750 250-650

  • Conversion
    • About one percent of testosterone is converted to estrogen
    • Testosterone is also converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

See more information on Testosterone and related hormones

 

 

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