Overreaching & Tapering
Overreaching is characterized by a sharp increase in training
volume. Overreaching is thought to be an early stage of overtraining
which can result in increased fatigue and performance decrements.
However, an increase in performance above baseline can occur,
if an overreaching phase of approximately 1 week is followed
by an immediate return to normal training. A taper following
normal training can result in additional performance increases.
Stone MH, Pierce KC, Sands WA, Stone ME (2006). Weightlifting:
Program Design. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 28 (2), 10-17.
Hormonal Fluctuation Model
higher testosterone to cortisol ratio correlates with increases
of maximal strength performance
Hakkinen KA, Pskarinen A, Alen M, Kau hanen H, Komi PV
(1987). Relationships between training volume, physical performance
capacity, and serum hormone concentrations during prolonged training
in elite weight lifters. International Journal of Sports Medicine,
8 (suppli): 61-65.
- 30% drop in Testosterone/Cortisol Ratio is proposed
to be too extreme for effective recovery of performance after
- Changes of less that 10% in Testosterone/Cortisol Ratio is
proposed to be too small and lead to lesser performance improvements
- Performance should be optimal if period of training can be
adjusted to lower T/C ratio between 10-30% that is followed by
a period of recovery.
Glutamine/Glutamate Ratio and Overtraining
- GN/GT ratio >5.88 = Normal
- GN/GT ratio >3.58 <5.88 = Adaptation
- GN/GT ratio <3.58 for <2 weeks = Over Reaching
- GN/GT ratio <3.58 for >2 weeks = Over Training
Lon Kilgore, Ph.D., Midwestern State University, Exercise
Science Laboratories and USA Weightlifting Regional Development
Center, Wichita Falls, Texas.
- Period of recovery
- Lack of progress or other overtraining symptom
- Resume Training
- Determine cause of overtraining
- too much, too fast, too soon
- Weight training example
- Cardio example
- See Causes
- Also examine contributors of overtraining occurring outside
- Change program accordingly
- Reassess and readjust program indefinitely
Some authorities mistakenly misattribute injury to a specific
movement when, if fact, other factors such as overtraining were
to blame. See Over
Generalizations and Adaptation