Following intense exercise, lactic acid removal from the blood
is attenuated with an active recovery as compared to a resting
recovery. The optimal intensity of recovery exercise to promote
blood lactic acid removal is approximately 30-40% of VO2 max
(Dodd S, et al. 1984). Higher intense exercise would likely increase
blood lactic acid levels and therefore hinder removal. Also see
Standing versus Lying Hamstring Stretch
proper instruction, both the standing
hamstring stretch and the lying
single leg hamstring stretch are equally effective improve
knee extension (when hip was bent at 90 degrees) by 9.4 degrees
and 8.1 degrees respectively.
Decoster LC, et. al. (2004) Standing and supine hamstring
stretches are comparably effective. Journal of Athletic Training.
Supplement 39(2), 97.
Exercise Modifications in a Group Exercise Setting
Suggest one or two ways in which your class participates can
make the exercise easier or modify the movement to accommodate
Stability Ball Sizes
Up to 58" (147 cm)
Small: 18" (45 cm)
58" (147 cm) to 65" (165 cm)
Medium: 22" (55 cm)
65" (165 cm) to 72" (183 cm)
Large: 26" (65 cm)
72" (183 cm) to 77" (196 cm)
X Large 30" (75 cm)
Over 77" (196 cm)
XX Large 33" (85 cm)
Choose a ball that allows participant to sit with knees and
hips bent about 90 degrees, or thighs parallel to floor. Recommended
ball sizes will vary to accommodate specific exercises, individual
needs, and sometimes the difficulty of the exercise. Keep ball
inflated to 90% of its maximum diameter (65 cm ball inflates
to 58 cm).
Work-site Fitness Programs
fitness center benefits:
- Decrease absenteeism
- Decrease health care costs
- Employee recruitment and retention
- Employee moral improvement
A comprehensive review of the literature demonstrated work-site
fitness programs were cost-effective and cost-beneficial with
an estimated $2 to $5 return for every $1 invested.
Baun, W.B., Bernacki, E.J., and Tsai, S.P. (1986) A preliminary
investigation: Effect of a corporate fitness program on absenteeism
and health care cost. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 28 (1),
Lynch, W.D., Golaszewski, T.J., Clearie, A.F., Snow, D.,
Vickery, D.M. (1990) Impact of a facility-based corporate fitness
program on the number of absences from work due to illness. Journal
of Occupational Medicine, 32 (1), 9-12.
Shephard, R.J. (1992) A critical analysis of work-site
fitness programs and their postulated economic benefits. Medicine
and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24 (3), 354-70.
Income and Education Level and Physical Activity Participation
In 2006, approximately one-third of adults 18 years of age
and over engaged in regular leisure-time physical activity. Adults
in families with income above twice the poverty level were more
likely to engage in regular leisure-time physical activity (34.8%)
than adults in lower income families (20.6%). Those more likely
to engage in regular leisure-time physical activity where those
with some or more college (37.6% participation) as compared to
those with a high school diploma (23.5% participant) or those
with no high school diploma (16.5% participation).
U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease
control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics,
Health, United States, 2007.
reduced training load of 3 to 21 days has been successfully used
in both endurance and strength sports. Runners and swimmers can
reduce training load by 60% for up to 21 days without reduction
Costill D, et al (1985) Effects of reduced training on
muscular power in swimmers. Physician and Sports Medicine, 13:94-101.
Gibala M, et al (1994) The effects of tapering on strength
performance in trained athletes. International Journal of Sports
Houmard J (1990). Reduced training maintains performance
in distance runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine,