modest changes in body composition have been reported in many
of the studies that have investigated the effects of exercise
on obesity. It is plausible that activity of higher intensity
or longer duration could have resulted in a more dramatic fat
loss. Unfortunately, obese people may not benefit from physical
activity as readily as less obese individuals since they may
be limited in their ability to exercise vigorously for substantial
duration. In addition, physical activity accounts for only a
fraction of the daily caloric expenditure for the majority of
the obese population. The implementation of an exercise program
will raise this fraction only slightly. On the other hand, once
an adequate exercise program is followed, less fit individuals,
such as the mildly obese, can improve their fitness levels relatively
faster than individuals of greater initial fitness.
Obese individuals must consider potential problems in engaging
in an exercise program. They may include, balance anxiety, muscular
weakness, pulmonary hypertension, low back pain, movement restriction,
orthopedic problems, ionic disbalance, poor circulation (diabetics),
excessive perspiration, flush skin, hypenea, dyspnea, tachycardia,
arterial hypertension, body heat build up, ketonuria, chafing,
muscle cramps, orthostatic hypotension, and heavy strain on joints.
The exercise professional may address these obstacles dependent
on their clients circumstances. Other factors to be considered
include the duration of obesity, maturation, motivation, mental
state, exercise history, eating patterns, and socialization.
Program support may include medical evaluation, nutritional counseling,
behavioral counseling, and exercise instruction and consultation.
Obese individuals initiating a fat loss regimen
can be counseled on various techniques designed to increase program
adherence. These may include the implementation of support groups,
personal contracts, exercise and diet journals, and regular fitness
tests. The over enthusiastic client may need to be encouraged
to progress slowly and to yield to undo discomfort. The obese
exercise participant may also explore the possibilities of exercise
partners of similar fitness level, group versus individual exercise,
structures for self competition, and diversions such as reading,
listening to music, or watching television while exercising.
Social support from family, friends, employees, and social groups
should not be disregarded. Lifestyle changes throughout the day
may be encouraged to further assist in energy expenditure. They
may include, parking a distance from their destination, less
reliance an vehicular transportation, using stairs instead of
the elevator, walking around town to perform local errands.
Exercise can play a very important role in the treatment of
obesity when combined with a multifaceted approach as discussed
in this paper. Physical activity can improve health, decrease
the loss of muscle mass, increase functional strength, and greatly
improve the likelihood of achieving successful weight maintenance.
Relatively few studies have been conducted with severe or morbid
obese subjects. More research is needed in this area.
Life-changing, research-driven, nutrition coaching.
Enroll in the Precision Nutrition body transformation program.
Endorsed by ExRx.net.