Glucosamine and Chondroitin
older adults, Glucosamine and Chondroitin may reverse certain
degenerative joint problems and provide some relief of chronic
joint pain, depending on the injuries cause, severity, and location.
When used as a nutritional supplement, glucosamine and chondroitin
effects are as follows:
- may slow joint erosion and/or augment connective tissue repair
- stimulates proteoglycan synthesis, a subtype of growth factor
regulatory sugared proteins
- absorbs and incorporates into cartilage in about four hours
- reduces pain by up to about 70% in as little as 7 days
- effect persistent up to 30 days after cessation of supplementation
- more effective than ibuprofen with chronic use
- Other ingredients also found in some Glucosamine Sulfate
- Glucosamine Chlorhydrate, Chondroitin Sulfate, and Glycosaminoglycans.
- Glucosamine: an amino-sugar precursor of glycosaminoglycans
- Chondroitin Sulfate: a sugar-containing protein called a
- Both components of the connective tissues and extra-cellular
- Both compounds
- stabilize cell membrane structure during stress
- affect growth factor availability
- enhances the joint's ability to absorb shock
The efficacy of certain amino acids appear to be supported
by the scientific studies.
Newton RU, Dioguardi F (2003). The effects of amino acid
supplementation on muscular performance during resistance training
overreaching. J. Strength Cond Res. 17(2): 250-258.
Miller SL, Tipton KD, Chinkes DL, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR (2003).
Independent and Combined Effects of Amino Acids and Glucose after
Resistance Exercise.. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 35 (3), 449-455
Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle D, Wolfe, RR
(1999). Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from
orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol, 276 (Endocrenol
Metab 39): E628-E634.
Gianni B, Tipton KD, Klein S, Wolfe RR (1997). An abundant
supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise
on muscle protein. Am J Physiol, 273 (Endocrenol Metab 36).
HMB, or ß-Hydroxy ß-methylbutarate increased lean
body weight and reduced fat in cattle. The effects of the HMB
on muscle metabolism during weight training has been studied
in humans (Nissen, 1996). A 200 lb male may take 3 grams of HMB.
Glutamine is an amino
acid which can reduce the loss of muscle by blocking the receptor
sites for cortisol. Glutamine has been used for burn victims.
It has been proposed to be an essential amino acid during extreme
stress. Research regarding its efficiency in exercise is mixed
and inconclusive. No known adverse effects when taken in recommended
dosages of 5g to 20g in divided doses, before, during, and after
Taking Leucine (3g) along with carbohydrates and protein after
exercise may enhance recovery and muscle repair.
GABA or Gamma-AminoButyrac Acid reportedly has caused reactions
in some people requiring emergency hospitalization.
Look for USP approval on vitamins that pass tests of quality,
strength and purity. (RxTV: February 25, 1998)
If a multi-vitamin is to be used, ingredients should not contain
significantly more than 100% of the RDA or DRI. Certain vitamins
and minerals compete for the same carrier molecule into the cell.
Also see micronutrients.
Vitamins and minerals can keep for 6 years or more when protected
from the light, moisture, and heat.
The New York Public Library Desk Reference, 4th Ed, pg