Functional Movement Systems
Screening, Assessment, Corrective Strategies
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Gray Cook, MSPT, OCS, CSCS
Lee Burton, Kyle Kiesel, Greg Rose & Milo Bryant
About the Author | Table of Contents | Words of Praise | FMS DVD Set
Movement is a vivid discovery, a fundamental and explicit teaching in which the return to basics takes on a whole new meaning. In it, author Gray Cook crosses the lines between rehabilitation, conditioning and fitness, providing a clear model and a common language under which fitness and rehabilitation professionals can work together.
By using systematic logic and revisiting the natural developmental principals all infants employ as they learn to walk, run and climb, Gray forces a new look at motor learning, corrective exercise and modern conditioning practices.
The discoveries, lessons and approaches you'll learn
- How to view and measure movement quality alongside quantity
- How to ascertain dysfunctional patterns with the Functional Movement Screen
- What clinicians need to know about the Selective Functional Movement Assessments
- When to apply corrective strategies and how to determine which strategies to use
- How to map movement patterns and understand movement as a behavior and not just as a mechanical idea
This book is not simply about the anatomy of moving structures. Rather, it serves a broader purpose to help the reader understand authentic human movement, and how the brain and body create and learn movement patterns. Our modern dysfunctions are a product of our isolated and incomplete approaches to exercise imposed on our sedentary lifestyles. A return to movement principles can create a more comprehensive exercise and rehabilitation model, a model that starts with movement.
Gray Cook, a practicing physical therapist, has spent his entire career refining and developing functional evaluation exercise techniques. He has taken the Functional Movement Screen and his advanced assessment practices and combined them with reactive-based exercises that enhance motor learning. These two components are the pillars of the Reebok Core Training System.
Gray's ability to teach at many different professional levels is the result of his diverse background. He is a board-certified orthopedic clinical specialist with the American Physical Therapy Association. Gray is also a certified strength and conditioning specialist with the National Strength and Conditioning Association. He is a Level I coach with the U. S. Weight Lifting Federation. He combines his clinical skills with over seven years of professional teaching and lecturing experience.
Gray has lectured nationally and internationally in the fields of physical therapy, sports medicine and performance enhancement. He has served as a consultant to numerous universities and professional sports teams in all four major sports. His is author of the new book Athletic Body in Balance which serves as a working example of the unique way Cook looks at assessment, movement, and exercise. He is also the author of numerous text book chapters and articles related to these topics as well.
Gray's consulting is not limited to rehabilitation and sports medicine. He is equally sought after for his advice on conditioning and performance enhancement. Gray currently practices physical therapy in Southwest Virginia and continues to publish and present topics related to rehabilitation and exercise. He is also part of the Perform Better expert consulting faculty and an instructor with the North American Sports Medicine Institute.
This introductory chapter builds the foundation you'll need to fully understand the purpose of screening movement. You'll learn the concept of movement patterns and how to recognize these patterns in action, as well as the history and primary goals of movement screening.
The next 16 pages expand on the differences between authentic movement and scientific anatomical function. The functional systems of muscles, joints and ligaments are covered, as are the fascial matrix, breathing and the neuromuscular network. Understanding movement deficiency and dysfunction and how these develop will illuminate your work, and clarify your explanations to your athletes, clients and patients.
In Chapter 3, you'll gain an appreciation of the natural laws of basic movement before specific, with an overview of how to use screening, testing and assessment to classify movement proficiency or deficiency. You'll also get a summary of the differences between the two systems, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA).
Where in your intake process should you screen? Can you screen an injured client or athlete? This section will help you place movement screening in your existing business model, or it will show you where your program structure might be improved.
This summary explains the differences between the two systems, the FMS for fitness professionals and strength coaches, and the SFMA for medical professionals. You'll get a brief look at the systems, and finish with an appreciation of primitive and higher-level movement patterns.
The chapter used to cover the FMS will teach you the seven basic screens in detail, including where to stand, what to watch for during the movements and how to plan your modifications. You'll get a description of each screen, the purpose of each, tips for testing, implications and photographs showing how to score each test.
The top-tier assessments of the SFMA are covered in these 26 pages, which contain a discussion of the overlying considerations of functional versus dysfunctional and painful versus non-painful, the overriding criteria of the SFMA system. The seven elements of the top-tier will direct you to the breakout tests found in Chapter 8.
Taking 58 pages and 66 photographs to cover the SFMA breakouts will serve to remind medical professionals of the individual assessments, and at the same time make fitness trainers and strength coaches aware of the tests used by professionals to whom they refer clients and athletes. The rationale for each of the breakout regions will pull the process together for you as it simplifies the overall approach.
Chapter 9 teaches how to analyze the various test results. Using the tests of the Functional Movement Screen as the base, you'll learn what mistakes most beginners make in screening, how to distinguish between stability and mobility problems and how to determine asymmetries. Here you'll get your first introduction to reverse patterning (RP) and reactive neuromuscular training (RNT), two of the primary corrective tools of the Functional Movement Systems arsenal.
This begins the wrap-up: What do you do with the resulting screen and assessment information? The 20 pages of Chapter 10 comprise the performance pyramid and how to use it to form your corrective strategies. Understanding the differences between correct and corrective exercises, between challenging versus difficult, and having a selection of self-limiting exercises in your exercise menu will give you confidence as you assign and program exercises.
Now that you've discovered dysfunctional patterns in your clients, athletes and patients, the next section will guide you in the corrective decisions that make up the three primary categories of mobility, stability and movement pattern retraining. You'll get comparisons of conditioning and corrective exercise, movement prep and movement correction, skill training and corrective prioritization, and understand when each is appropriate.
This chapter provides a checklist for your corrective decisions: pain, purpose, posture, position, pattern and plan. Even though every person's movement is unique, without this framework, your corrective path will not be as clear as it could be. You'll also become familiar with the basic structure involving special considerations and populations that may make up part of your client or patient base.
Chapter 13 builds on your knowledge of basic mobility and stability corrections and movement pattern retraining. Using passive, active and assistive techniques, you'll be able to help your clients, athletes and patients recover lost mobility. Understanding stability and motor control, transitional postures and using facilitation techniques such as reactive neuromuscular training will give you the tools to challenge that new mobility. You'll also become proficient at rolling after practicing the material in this rich chapter.
Finally, in the 24 remarkable pages of Chapter 14, you'll learn how to make corrective exercise an experience. This is how corrective exercise actually works in the human body, and the thorough discussion found in this chapter will teach you how to create this for your clientele. Using PNF, RNT, reverse patterning, conscious loading, resisted and self-limiting exercises, you'll grasp the concept of the manageable mistake zone, and you'll be able to use these ideas and techniques to stand out in your crowded professional field.
This wrap-up section pulls the material together for one last review of where the industry is now, and where it's heading. When you finish this section, you'll have a complete understanding of the 10 principles of the Functional Movement System. These principles will guide you in learning and training authentic movement.
- Michael Boyle:
- Joint-by-Joint Concept
- Gray Cook:
- Expanding on the Joint-by-Joint Approach
- Greg Rose:
- SFMA Score Sheets and Flowcharts
- Laurie McLaughlin:
- Introduction to Breathing
- Gray Cook
- Introduction to Heart Rate Variability
- Gray Cook:
- Functional Movement Systems Team List
- Gray Cook:
- Early Perspective and the Jump Study
- Phil Plisky:
- Core Testing and Functional Goniometry
- Lee Burton:
- FMS Scoring Criteria and Score Sheet
- FMS Verbal Instructions
- Gray Cook:
- Conventional Deep Squat Evaluation Process
- Patient Self Evaluation Forms
- List of Illustrations
Gray's premise is beautiful in its simplicity: Training movement can fix muscles, but training muscles rarely fixes movement. Since all of sport is movement, his 80/20 approach is then astounding in its effectiveness. For the time invested, the FMS and its cousins are the best tools I've seen for producing bullet-proof athletes and pain-free non-athletes in record time.
Tim Ferriss, author of the #1 NY Times bestseller, The 4-Hour Workweek
Exercise and rehabilitation time is valuable, too valuable not to use a system. Preparation is built on a systematic evaluation of everything we can control. This book uses a systematic approach to exercise and rehabilitation built on the fundamentals of authentic human movement.
Peyton Manning, Indianapolis Colts
We have integrated many of Gray's movement principles and corrective strategies into our programs to help accomplish our mission of preserving and maintaining the Commander's combat power. The FMS screening and assessment tools are very useful in establishing the baseline for our performance training system.
Mike Strock, US NAVY, Human Performance Consultant
I was skeptical when Gray and Lee first took me through the screening process. But by bringing out my weak spots, this honest evaluation told them exactly what I needed to work on. They taught me to think of my body in a different way, proving trainers and therapists don't need fancy equipment to do a good evaluation.
Michelle Wie, Professional Golfer