Cardiorespiratory Endurance Tests

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 Protocol  Population  Mode  Equation  r  SEE  Reference
Balke Active & sedentary men

Treadmill

walk

VO2 max = 1.444 (T) + 14.99 0.92 ±2.5 ml/kg x min. Pollock et al., 1976
Speed 3.3 mph; 0% grade 1st minute, 2% increase at start of minute 2, elevation increases 1% each minute thereafter
Balke, modified for women Active & sedentary women

Treadmill

walk

VO2 max = 1.38 (T) + 5.22 0.94 ±2.20 ml/kg x min. Pollock et al., 1982
Speed 3.0 mph; 0% grade for 3 minutes, elevation increase 2.5% every 3 minutes thereafter
Bruce Active & sedentary men; male cardiac patients

Treadmill

walk to run

VO2 max = 14.76 - 1.379 (T) + 0.451 (T^2) - 0.012 (T^3) 0.98 ±3.35 ml/kg x min. Foster et al., 1984
      VO2 max = 13.3 - 0.03 (T) + 0.297 (T^2) - 0.0077 (T^2) + 4.2 (CHS)    
  Individuals who require hand rail support   VO2 max = 2.282 (T) + 8.545   ±4.92 ml/kg x min.  McConnell & Clark 1987
Bruce Active & sedentary women

Treadmill

walk to run

VO2 max = 4.38 (T) - 3.90 0.91 ±2.7 ml/kg x min. Pollock et al., 1982
Bruce Treadmill
Stage 1 2 3 4 5 6  7
Speed (mph) 1.7 2.5 3.4 4.2 5.0 5.5 6
Grade (%) 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

T = time to exhustion

CHS = Cardiac health status (healthy subject = 1, individuals with angina pectoris, past myocardial infarction, or myocardial revascularization surgery.


Of all treadmill tests performed in the United States, it has been estimated 71% use the Bruce protocol and 10% follow the Balke protocol (Pollock 1984).

Also see: Proper Technique in Administering a Stress Test DVD


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