Hydrostatic Weighing (Body Composition)
Tester takes subject's height, weight, and residual lung capacity.
Subject gets in water, wipes off bubbles on body, blows 80% of
air out in the water then the other 20% submerged. Subject holds
as still as possible. Tester hits on side of tank to signal subject
weight has been taken.
Inaccurate with power athletes with high bone density since
formulas assume fixed bone density. Football players have been
measured with negative percent body fat. Possibly inaccurate
with individuals with low bone density.
Fat located inside the abdominal
wall (visceral fat) contributes more to risk of cardiovascular
disease and diabetes than does fat located in other areas (Björntorp
1992). Some experts suggest waist circumference may be a better
predictor of visceral fat than widely used waist-to-hip ratio
(Pouliot, et al 1994). Waist circumference may overestimate health
risk in tall individuals and underestimate health risk in short
individuals (Welborn, et al 2003) and weight trained individuals,
or those with thicker waist musculature (See study).
Also see Waist Hip
Björntorp P (1992). Abdominal fat distribution and
the metabolic syndrome. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol : 20 Supp 8: S26-S28.
Pouliot M-C, Després JP, Lemieux S, Moorjani S,
Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Nadeau A, Lupien PJ. (1994). Waist circumference
and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes
of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related
cardiovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardio. 73: 460-468.
Welborn TA, Satvinder S Dhaliwal and Stanley A Bennett
(2003). Waisthip ratio is the dominant risk factor predicting
cardiovascular death in Australia. The Medical Journal of Australia;
179 (11/12): 580-585.
Standards are as follows:
- Men: no greater than 102 cm (40 inches)
- Women: no greater than 88 cm (34.6 inches)
- Post-menopause women: no greater than 110 cm (43.3 inches)
100 - 120
39.5 - 47
90 - 109
35.5 - 43
80 - 99
31.5 - 39
70 - 89
28.5 - 35
ACSM (2005) ACSM guidelines for exercise testing and prescription,
7th ed. Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, 61
Shigematsu R (2004). Cutoff values of Intra-abdominal fat
area for the prevention of metabolic disorders in women. 36(5).
- Bone mineral density accurately measures bone strength and
risk of osteoporosis (Bouxsein, 1993)
- Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)
- Amount of x-ray transmitted through bone is proportional
to mineral density
- Soundwaves estimates bone density by measuring wave attenuation
as it is applied to skeletal site.
- Attenuation affected by material and geometric properties
- Heel, shinbone, and kneecap
- Used as screening tool
- Diagnostic ability is questionable
- Poor at retesting due to poor precision errors (5-10%)
- poor at monitoring efficacy of treatment
- poor at detecting rates of loss
- Advantages over DXA
- no radiation
- easier to administer
- less cost
Measuring Joint Angles
- Measures angles and range of motion of joints.
- Technique must be standardized
- Yardstick and protractor
- Protractor diagram drawn on wall
- Speeds up testing large numbers
- Not as precise
- Track arc of motion
- Acceptable for complex movements
- Similar in principle to a carpenter's level
- Two inclinometers may be used
- May be purchased at a hardware store and are quite inexpensive.
Sit & Reach Box?
Liemohn et al (1997) found performance
on the sit-and-reach was significantly better with the ankle
in a passive plantar flexion as opposed to the fixed dorsiflexion
posture required when the test is administered using a sit-and-reach
box (See Sit and Reach
flexion may negatively affect hip flexion, since the stretched
pull the hamstrings
behind the knee.
The newest YMCA sit-and-reach
protocol no longer uses a sit-and-reach box allowing the
ankle to plantar flex. The YMCA Fitness Testing and Assessment
Manual (2000) states:
"A recent study by Golding showed a significant difference
in the scores obtained in the YMCA Flexibility Test and a different
version of the sit-and-reach test used in some other test batteries.
To use the (newer) YMCAs norms, the test must be
performed as just described."
Interestingly, in a bent over standing position, the ankle
would be in a neutral position, only slightly more plantar flexed
Liemohn W, Martin SB, Pariser G (1997). The effect of ankle
posture on sit-and-reach test performance in young adults. Journal
of Strength and Conditioning Research, 11, 239-241.
YMCA of the USA (2000), YMCA Fitness Testing and Assessment
Manual, 4th Edition, 158-160.
15 minute Run
Balke B (1963) A simple field test for the assessment of
physical fitness. Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Report,
63-18. Oklahoma City: Federal Aviation Agency.
Yo-Yo Test (Beep test)
Subjects run back and forth between markers, 20 meters apart
at speeds controlled by a cassette. The speed is progressively
increased. When the subject can no longer maintain the speed,
the test is terminated. VO2 max can be determined from the distance
covered during the test
- Developed by: Jens Bangsbo, August Krogh Institute, Copenhagen,
- Produced by: HO + Storm, Copenhagen, Denmark and Tiocano
Music A/S, Smorum, Denmark
- Purchase: Helle Thomson, August Krogh Institute, Universitetsparken
13, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark, Fax: Int+45 35 32 15 67, Tel:
Int+45 35 323 1622
The 20-m shuttle run (Beep Test) is a poor predictor of VO2
max in male college soccer players. A correlation of r=0.35 was
found between the predicted VO2 max scores from the Beep Test
and the Vo2 max scores measured during the treadmill test.
Kendrick KH, Titlow LW, Sherwwod N (2004). Concurrent Validity
of the Beep Test in Male College Soccer Players. Research Quarterly
for Exercise and Sport. 75(1) Supl, A-39-40.