Predictors of Running Performance
running speed is a better predictor of running performance (e.g.
marathon time) than is either VO2 max or the running economy.
Lactate turnpoint and respiratory ventilation threshold (a.k.a.
anaerobic threshold) are other variable that accurately predict
athletic performance, particularly in running events of 10 to
Noakes, T.D.: Implications of exercise testing for prediction
of athletic performance, a contemporary perspective, Medicine
and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1988; 20 (4): 319-330
Inverted T wave with strong QRS voltage is also normal in
athlete's. Up to 10% of trained athletes may exhibit 2nd degree
Houston TP, Puffer JC, Rodney WM: The Athletic Heart Syndrome,
N Eng J Med, 1985; 313 (1): 24-32
Many arrhythmias observed in athletes can be considered normal
for this population and are not related to any pathology. Several
of these rhythm and electrocardiographic changes seen in aerobic
athletes at rest resolve during exercise. Routine screening for
cardiovascular artery disease for asymptomatic athletes is not
recommended due to the high rate of false positives. If the athlete
is able to exercise at maximal intensity without difficulty,
it can be concluded that abnormal ECG changes are likely attributed
to the Athletic Heart Syndrome.
Crown LA, Hizon JW, Rodney WM, (1997) The Athlete's Heart,
The Team Physician's Handbook, Mosby, 2: 294-303
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is only a risk factor for
cardiovascular disease and not necesarily considered a Cardiovascular
Disease in itself (see Modified
ACSM Risk Classification Form), particularly since 95% of
diagnosed hypertension is idiopathic (no known cause). It is
also known as Essential or Primary Hypertension. Essential Hypertension
is likely caused by and interaction between genetic and environmental
factors. Also see Vitals
VO2 max Differences
The aerobic capacity of women is typically about 10-20% less
than men (Astrand, 1977).
VO2 max steadily increases during childhood and reaches a
peak at around the age of 20, after which, it slowly declines.
The VO2 max of a highly trained endurance athlete is about
twice that of an average person.
VO2 max Estimate Inaccuracies
An overestimation of VO2 max can result from failure to achieve
steady state or rail holding during treadmill testing. Other
inaccuracies can result from improperly calibrated ergometers
and factors that change mechanical efficiency such as wind, snow,
sand, and gait abnormalities.
Index and Ring Finger Ratio
utero (prenatal), androgen exposure is inversely related with
2D:4D ratio. Other factors where 2D:4D ratios also appears to
be negatively correlated with certain components of fitness:
- Hand grip strength in men only
- Endurance Running (accounts for 25% of variance)
- Muscle mass and strength in older adults (73.72 ±
6.23 years of age).
Halil M, Gurel EI, Kuyumcu ME, Karaismailoglu S, Yesil
Y, Ozturk ZA, Yavuz BB, Cankurtaran M, Ariogul S (2013). Digit
(2D:4D) ratio is associated with muscle mass (MM) and strength
(MS) in older adults: possible effect of in utero androgen exposure.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 56(2):358-63.
Hone LSE, McCollough E (2012). 2D:4D ratios predict hand
grip strength (but not hand grip endurance) in men (but not in
women). Evolution & Human Behavior. 33(6):780-789.
Manning JT1, Morris L, Caswell N (2007). Endurance running
and digit ratio (2D:4D): implications for fetal testosterone
effects on running speed and vascular health. Am J Hum Biol.
Black Women & Heart Disease
Compared to white women, black women have a higher incidence
of heart disease and they are twice as likely to die from the
Giraffes have the highest blood pressure at 280/180 mm Hg.
Old-time Youth Pushups
remarkable how little fitness is required to be considered 'average'
nowadays. See girl's push-ups
norms. In 1945, a score 32 repetitions for high school girls
push-ups was only 60th percentile. Keep in mind, girls push-ups
were with the knees straight (sometimes performed holding on
to a 13" high stall bar bench) lowering the body until the
chest nearly touched. Interestingly, the boy's push-ups were
described as what we call dips
performed on parallel bars.
Metheny E (1945) Physical performance levels for high school
girls, Journal of Health and Physical Education, 16:84.
Willgoose CE (1961) Evaluation in Health Education and
Physical Education, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. pg 136-137.
1 Kilopond-meter (kpm) = kgm
1 kcal = 426.8 kpm
1 Joule (J) = 0.101 kgm
1 Watt = 6.12 kpm/min = 1 J/sec
1 kpm/min = 0.163 Watts
ExRx.net Calculator Results
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testing sheet) for future reference. The entire contents
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for off-line use.