Shoulder Articulations

Glenohumeral

Shoulder Flexion

Flexion

Bending the joint resulting in a decrease of angle; moving the upper arm upward to the front. Typically accompanies Shoulder Girdle Elevation / Upward Rotation.


Shoulder Extension

Extension

Straightening the joint resulting in an increase of angle; moving the upper arm down to the rear. Typically accompanies Shoulder Girdle Depression / Downward Rotation.


Shoulder Adduction

Adduction

Medial movement toward the midline of the body; moving the upper arm down to the side toward the body. Typically accompanies Shoulder Girdle Downward Rotation.


Shoulder Abduction

Abduction

Lateral movement away from the midline of the body; moving the upper arm up to the side away from the body. Typically accompanies Shoulder Girdle Upward Rotation. See Scapulohumeral Rythm.


Shoulder Transverse Adduction

Transverse Adduction

Medial movement toward the midline of the body in a horizontal plane; moving the upper arm toward and across the chest with the back of the arm facing down. Typically accompanies Shoulder Protraction.


Shoulder Transverse Flexion

Transverse Flexion

Medial movement toward the midline of the body in a horizontal plane; moving the upper arm toward and across the chest with the elbows facing out to the sides. Typically accompanies Shoulder Protraction.


Transverse Abduction Shoulder

Transverse Abduction

Lateral movement away from the midline of the body in a horizontal plane; moving the upper arm away from the chest with the elbows facing down. Typically accompanies Shoulder Retraction.


Shoulder Transverse Extension

Transverse Extension

Lateral movement away from the midline of the body in a horizontal plane; moving the upper arm away from the chest with the elbows out to the sides. Typically accompanies Shoulder Retraction.


Medial Rotation (Internal Rotation)

Medial Rotation (Internal Rotation)

Rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone toward the center of the body; turning the upper arm inward. Typically accompanies Shoulder Girdle Protraction. See shoulder internal rotation inflexibility.

*When shoulder is flexed (Ackland DC, Pandy MG, 2011).


Shoulder Lateral Rotation (External Rotation)

Lateral Rotation (External Rotation)

Rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone away from the center of the body; turning the upper arm outward. Typically accompanies Shoulder Girdle Retration. See shoulder external rotation inflexibility.

*When shoulder is abducted (Ackland DC, Pandy MG, 2011).


Notes

Mentioned articulations occur during concentric phase of exercise video examples.


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