- Stress (stimulus)
- Exercise / Physical Activity
- Adaptation (response)
- Adaptation response will begin to slow if the exact same stimulus is continued for a prolonged period of time.
- Adaptation is complete after limited time span
- Continued stimulus no longer elicits adaptation
Other Examples (epidermis):
- Sun: sunburn or increase melanin
- Friction: blister / abrasion or callus
- Training effects are specific to the muscle groups used during training and the type of training program implemented (Fox 1975).
- Training specifically for the movement pattern, speed, joint position, speed, and type of contraction produces improvement, specifically in those movement parameters (Kreighbaum 1996).
- Specific sport or activity yields greatest improvements
- Supplement activity or sports training with resistance, cardiovascular, plyometrics, flexibility exercises
- Utilize progression and periodization techniques
- Also see Adaptation Criteria.
- Adaptation is specific to :
- Speed of contraction
- power training examples
- Metabolic pathways utilized
- Time exercising
- Recovery between bouts or work intervals
- Number of reps
- Number of exercises and sets
Fox E, McKenzie D, Cohen K. (1975). Specificity of training: metabolic and circulatory responses. Med Sci Sports, 7(1):83.
Kreighbaum, E., Barthels KM (1996). Biomechanics; A Qualitative Approach for Studying Human Movement, Allyn & Bacon, 4.
- Transfer of learning between various skills and exercise routines can occur if the main elements underlying different skills or situations surrounding performance are identical and similar in nature.
- Eg: Gymnastic training aimed at practicing complex exercise maneuvers complement (positively transfer) to the springboard diving.
- As the degree of similarity between stimuli and responses decline, conflicting consequences may be experienced.
- Transition from gymnastic to diving may not likely transfer because of the dissimilarity between diving and gymnastic somersaulting techniques.
Slobounov SM (2008). Injuries in Athletics, Causes and Consequences, Springer, 25-43
- Perform every weight training exercise through a full range of motion
- Recommended by leading authorities
- Develops strength throughout full range of motion
- Maintains flexibility (Morton 2011, Souza 2013)
- necessary for ideal mechanics, function, and joint integrity
- Joint adapts to full extension and flexion
- Less susceptible to injury at extremes after adaptation
- Unless range of motion will never be used
- Consider unintentional or accidental range of motion in real world situations
- Conditions stabilizing muscles
- Full range of motion varies from person to person.
- For elderly adults, perform the maximum range of motion that does not elicit pain or discomfort (ACSM 1995)
American College of Sports Medicine (1995). Principles of Exercise Prescription, William & Wilkins, 5.
Morton SK, Whitehead JR, Brinkert RH, Caine DJ (2011). Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res. 25(12):3391-8.
Slobounov SM (2008). Injuries in Athletics, Causes and Consequences, Springer, 25-43.
Souza AC, Bentes CM, de Salles BF, Reis VM, Alves JV, Miranda H, Novaes Jda S (2013). Influence of inter-set stretching on strength, flexibility and hormonal adaptations. J Hum Kinet. 36:127-35.
- Consider all activities when selecting exercises for a strength and conditioning program
- jumping, leaping, squatting, lifting, pushing, climbing, running, cutting, blocking, etc.
- Unilateral and transverse movements
- Other sports-specific training or motor skills
- Utilize Periodization techniques for progressive adaptation
- general to sports-specific training
- Also see Example Power Training Progressions
- Also see
...it is a common practice in collegiate athletics that divers and swimmers utilize similar heavy resistance workouts for upper body, particularly during preparation period. This is inconsistent, at least, with the principle of specificity. Coaches should be aware that "what is honey for a swimmer could be poison for a diver".
Slovounov SM 2008