Sodium (Na+)

Functions

  • nerve and muscle function
  • fluid balance

Deficiency

  • muscle cramps
  • weakness
  • headache
  • nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps
  • dehydration
  • confusion
  • depression
  • palpations
  • impaired taste
  • low blood pressure
  • seizures
  • deficiency rare in developed countries
  • acute deficiency caused by extremely heavy perspiration

Characteristic

  • Mineral

Good Sources

Sodium

  • table salt
  • milk and dairy products
  • meats
  • also found in many processed foods
  • drinking water (some locations)

Adequate Intakes (AI)

  • Males and Females (19-51+ yrs.)
      • 1,500 mg (1.5 g)
      • 500 mg
  • Children
    • 10-18 yrs.
      • 500 mg
    • 6-9 yrs.
      • 400 mg
    • 2-5 yrs.
      • 300 mg
    • 1 yr
      • 225 mg
  • Infants
    • 7 mths-1 yr
      • 200 mg
    • birth-6 mths
      • 120 mg
  • Sufficient data to set RDA are unavailable

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)

  • Adults (19 to 50 yrs)
    • 2,300 mg (2.3 g)
  • Intakes above UL may lead to negative health consequences.
    • edema
    • elevated blood pressure
    • deseases of liver and kidneys
    • potassium deficiency

Supplementation

  • Not recommended, not necessary.
  • Most Americans get excessive sodium from their diets
  • Some recommend 2400 mg daily
  • Best taken with calcium, potassium, sulfur, vitamin D

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