Consider all activities when selecting exercises for a strength and conditioning program
- Specific activities
- Jumping, leaping, squatting, lifting, pushing, climbing, running, cutting, blocking, etc.
- Other sports-specific training or motor skills
- Fitness Components
- Cardiovascular Endurance
- Speed & Quickness
- Flying Speed
- Speed Endurance
- Flexibility & Mobility
- Motor Skill
- Muscles used
- Joint Angles
- Contraction type
- Unilateral and transverse movements
- Energy Systems Utilized
- Injury Prevention
- Most common injuries
- Player’s history of injury
A maximum short-term strength and power event that consists of maximum effort and lengthy rest periods:
- Baseball position player
- Field event in track and field
- Swimming short sprinter
- Track short sprinter
A sub-maximum to maximum event with multiple strength and power exertions of varied intensities and minimal to moderate rest periods:
Individual Fitness Assessments
Periodically collect data for needs assessment and tracking of progress
- Fitness Assessments
- Motor Skills Assessments
- Dietary Analysis
- Sports Psychological Assessments
- Relevant to most conditioning goals
- Injury prevention (prehab)
- Muscular Endurance
- Body Composition
- Increase muscle
- Decrease body fat
- Utilize Periodization techniques for progressive adaptation
- General to sports-specific training
- Also see Example Power Training Progressions
- Also see
"...it is a common practice in collegiate athletics that divers and swimmers utilize similar heavy resistance workouts for upper body, particularly during preparation period. This is inconsistent, at least, with the principle of specificity. Coaches should be aware that "what is honey for a swimmer could be poison for a diver".
Slovounov SM 2008
Olympic weightlifting may benefit athletes of many sports
- Implement only after adequate general conditioning and strength training phases
Olympic Weightlifting may be excluded from certain sports conditioning programs
- A variation, one-arm snatch was found in two source, online and in coaching book (Kavacs 2016).
- Most punches should have a slight downward motion to increase power.
- The expression of power transfer in Olympic lifts goes the opposite direction.
- Distance Running
- Use running based program
- Use swimming-based program:
Sports that appear to have a benefit from Olympic Weightlifting
- Soccer (Studwick 2016)
Plyometric Integration Ideas
- Implement plyometric exercises only after adequate general conditioning and strength training phases
- On Mon, Wed, Fri weight program, replace Wed with plyometric
- Choose month where more plyos are performed instead of Olympic Lifts
Sports Specific Speed Drills
Progression of Drills
- Slow and stable to fast and explosive
- Simple to complex
- Single direction to multidirectional
- Closed skill to open skill
- Body weight to external resistance
- Sports Conditioning Running
- Short Sprint Interval Training
- Ultra-Short Race-Pace Training (Swimming)
Chamari K, Hachana Y, Kaouech F, Jeddi R, Moussa-Chamari I, Wisløff U (2005). Endurance training and testing with the ball in young elite soccer players. Br J Sports Med. 39(1):24-8.
Chu DA, Myer GD (2013). Plyometrics, Dynamic Strength and Explosive Power, Human Kinetics, 195-225.
Foran B, Chu DA (2001). High-Performance Sports Conditioning, Human Kinetics, 215-266.
Gatz G (2009). Complete Conditioning for Soccer, Human Kinetics, 87-129.
Kovacs MS, Roetert EP, Ellenbecker TS (2016). Complete Conditioning for Tennis, Human Kinetics, 99-126, 181-192, 215-238.
McNeely E, Sandler D (2007) Power Plyometrics: The Complete Program, Meyer & Meyer Sport
Mellion MB, Walsh WM, Shelton GL (1997). The Team Physician’s Handbook. Hanley & Belfus, Mosby.
National Basketball Conditioning Coaches Association (2007) Complete Conditioning for Basketball, Human Kinetics, 127-184.
NSCA (2013). Developing Speed, Human Kinetics, 79-194.
Strudwick T (2016). Soccer Science, Human Kinetics, 238, 267.
Tamborra S (2008). Complete Conditioning for Baseball, Human Kinetics, 87-114, 147-198.